Bangladeş’teki çevresel kirliliği ve verem hastalığının sonuçlarını belgelemeye çalışan Bangladeşli fotoğrafçı Probal Rashid, objektifini şehrin en marjinalize edilmiş topluluğu üzerinde küresel ısınmanın etkilerini, hâlâ devam etmekte olan “Bangladeş’te İklim Krizi” adlı çalışmasında ortaya koyuyor.

Bangladeş; tropik kasırgaları, akarsu erozyonunu, taşkınları, toprak kaymalarını ve kuraklığı düzenli yaşayan bir yer olarak küresel iklim değişikliğine karşı oldukça savunmasız hâlde. Deniz seviyesinin yükselmesi ise ancak, en üst risk seviyesinde bulunan nüfusun mecburi olarak yer değiştirmesi anlamına gelebiliyor.

Rashid, sayıları kesin tahmin etmenin imkânsızlığını belirtmekle beraber, en iyi tahminlere göre deniz seviyesindeki yükselme, önümüzdeki 40 yılda Bangladeş’in yaklaşık 18 milyon vatandaşını yerinden edecek. Bu insanların çoğunun, ülke sınırlarının dışına değil, ülke içerisindeki başka bölgelere yerleşeceğini belirten Rashid, bunun ülke yönetimi için de çok zorlu bir görev olacağını söylüyor.

Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Selden etkilenmiş bir adam, bulduğu yükseltinin üzerinde bir tekneyi bekliyor.

Sanatçı, 2011 yılında taşkınlardan etkinlenmiş bölgeleri incelemek için ziyaret ettiği Sathkira’ya bir göz atmamız için bizlere ilham veriyor. Shatkhira, Bangladeş’in küresel ısınmayı en yakından tecrübe eden düşük rakımlı bölgelerinden biri. Köylüler, 2007 yılındaki Sidr kasırgasından sonra ardı ardına pek çok felaketle cebelleşiyor. Her yıl, muson yağmurları sırasında, dört-beş aylığına rehabilitasyon kamplarında ya da geçici yerleşkelerde hayatlarını sürdürmek durumunda kalıyorlar. Rashid, 2012 yılında geri döndüğünde durumun acil olduğunu ve değişim için derhal bir şeyler yapması gerektiğini anladı.

Proje, kısmen, Almanya merkezli bir toplumsal refah organizasyonu olan “Dünya ve Toplumsal Refah” adlı STK tarafından yürütülüyor. Rashid, LIGHTHOUSE (Deniz Deneri) adlı uzun vadeli küresel ısınmaya adaptasyon ve zararlarını hafifletme projesine fotoğraflarıyla katkıda bulunuyor.

RIZIA (40), her husband MAZED GAIN killed by tiger attack in 2012, she has three children. Thousands of men and women go into the Sundarbans forest in Southern Bangladesh every day to gather honey, collect firewood, or catch fish, crabs and putting themselves at great risk for a tiger attack. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Bu Rizia, eşi Mazed 2012 yılında bir kaplan tarafından öldürüldü. Üç çocuğu var. Canlıların gittikçe azalan toprak için verdiği mücadelede, bu tarz saldırılar (elbette kaplanların öldürülmesi de) gelecekte artacak gibi görünüyor.

Doğal afetlerin yanı sıra, ülke içinde göç etmek zorunda kalan birçok insan, yerleştikleri yeni ortamlarda pek çok yeni sorunla yüzleşmek durumunda kalıyor. Bu proje için Rashid tarafından fotoğraflanan Rizia adlı kadının eşi, 17 Ekim 2012’de Satkhira’daki Sundarbans Ormanı’nın yakınında balık avlamaya çalışırken bir kaplan tarafından öldürülmüş.

Rashid ekliyor: “Her gün binlerce insan Bangladeş’in güneyindeki Sundarbans Ormanı’na bal ve çalı çırpı toplamaya ya da balık ve yengeç avlamaya gidiyor. Bu, onları kaplan saldırılarının kucağında bırakıyor. Neredeyse her köyde “Bagh Bidhoba” (kaplan dulu) şeklinde tarif edilen ve eşini bu saldırılardan birine kurban vermiş bir kadın var. Bazı insanlar Gabura’yı (Satkhira’daki köylerden biri) ‘Kaplan Dullarının Köyü’ olarak anıyor; zira bu köyde bu saldırılar çok olağan.”

Rashid, erkeklerin genelde birkaç ay içerisinde tekrar evlendiğini ama kadınların bunu yapmadığını da ekliyor. Kadınların çoğu henüz birer çocukken (genelde 9-14 yaşları arası) evlendirildiği için ev işleri dışında pek bir beceri edinemiyorlar; bu da onların yoksulluk içinde ve çocuklarının yardımıyla ancak hayatta kalabilmesine neden oluyor.

MONOWARA KHATUN (50) lost her husband during the cyclone Sidr in 2007. Since then she has been in trouble to manage her life with 3 children. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Monowara Khatun. 50 yaşında. Eşini 2007 yılındaki Sidr kasırgasında kaybetmiş. Üç çocuğu var. Hayat o felaketten beri oldukça zorlaşmış.
Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Selden etkilenen insanlar bambu ve tentelerden yapılmış bu kulübelerde konaklıyor.
Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Muz ağacından yapılmış salıyla sel altında kalmış bir köyden geçen bir erkek.
A boy with his goat at Shyamnagar in Satkhira. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Keçisiyle gezen bir çocuk. Ayaklarındaki çamurlu su tuzlu bir bataklık ve kesinlikle içmeye uygun değil.
Women going back to their home after a day long work in Shyamnagar, Satkhira. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Shyamnagar’da uzun bir iş gününden sonra evlerine dönen kadınlar.
Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Tala’da sel suyunun kapanında kalmış bir aile.
People gather to collect drinking water from Reverse Osmosis Plant of an NGO's Project in Shyamnagar, Satkhira. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Yerel bir STK’nın tersten-ozmos yöntemiyle su üretmesi için ektiği bitkilerden gelen içme suyu için toplanan insanlar. Sulak bir yer olmasına rağmen içme suyu bulmak oldukça zor.
Rani Begum is 15 years old who was married at the age of 12, stands beside her child in Shyamnagar, Satkhira. Natural disasters in Bangladesh and the lack of an adequate government safety net for families affected by them, compound the poverty that drives child marriage. Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The regular and severe natural hazards that Bangladesh already suffers from – tropical cyclones, river erosion, flood, landslides and drought – are all set to increase in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. Sea level rise will increasingly inundate coastal land in Bangladesh and dramatic coastal and river erosion will destroy lands and homes. These and the many other adverse effects of climate change will severely impact the economy and development of the country.One of the most dramatic impacts will be the forced movement of people throughout Bangladesh as a result of losing their homes, lands, property and livelihoods to the effects of climate change. While it is impossible to predict completely accurate figures of how many people will be displaced by climate change, the best current estimates state that sea level rise alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. The vast majority of these people will be displaced within Bangladesh – not across international borders – presenting the Government with enormous challenges, particularly when it comes to finding places to live and work for those displaced.
Rani Begum. 15 yaşında. 12 yaşında evlendirilmiş. Kendi bebeğinin yanında duruyor. Doğal afetlerle gelen yıkım, yetersiz hükümet desteğiyle de birleşerek, halkın fakirleşmesine ve genç kadınların çocuk yaşta evlenmesine yol açmış.

Kaynak: The Feature Shoot